המשך קטע לתרגול הבנת הנקרא ב-TOEFL

//המשך קטע לתרגול הבנת הנקרא ב-TOEFL
הקלק כאן לצפייה בקטע המלא ובשאלות הראשונות

Paragraph 2
Susceptibility to and severity of influenza are not equal among all persons and are mediated by an array of host characteristics and environmental exposures. Although mouse models clearly demonstrate a role for genetics and several environmental factors in susceptibility to influenza, the results of human-based studies involving influenza virus infection have been less clear and are somewhat controversial.

2. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence from the passage? Incorrect answer choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
(A) A person's chances of having a severe case of influenza are influenced by his or her characteristics as well as by the environment that person is exposed to.
(B) While people are equally susceptible to contracting influenza, the severity of the disease can be mitigated by certain characteristics and environmental exposures.
(C) People have different innate characteristics and are exposed to various environmental factors which can affect both their likelihood of contracting influenza and the intensity of the disease.
(D) Being exposed to certain environmental factors may prolong the severity of the influenza infection in people with specific characteristics.

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Paragraph 3
Several epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that influenza-induced disease has a significant genetic component. In-depth analysis of genealogical data for victims of the 1918 influenza pandemic found that the relative risk (RR) of death for relatives of infected individuals was significantly higher than the RR of unrelated individuals. The study revealed that the RR for first-degree relatives and spouses was 1.54 and 1.98 respectively, and second- and third-degree relatives were also significantly at risk for influenza-associated death. Recent avian H5N1 influenza virus outbreaks revealed epidemiological clustering of infected individuals: over 90% of case clusters occurred among blood-related family members.

3. According to the passage, both the genealogical data for the victims of the 1918 influenza pandemic and the epidemiological clustering of people infected in the recent avian influenza outbreak-
(A) suggest that there is a genetic factor affecting one's likelihood of contracting influenza
(B) point to the need for more in –depth analysis of the data for earlier victims of influenza pandemics
(C) reveal that spouses and first-degree relatives share the greatest risk of dying from influenza
(D) hint at different susceptibility levels for blood relatives and spouses
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Paragraph 4
Another study found a correlation between blood type and susceptibility to influenza. This study found more severe clinicalmanifestationsof influenza infections in individuals with blood type A than individuals with blood type O or B. Although a study by Gottfredsson et al seems to suggest that influenza-induced mortality is not influenced by genetic inheritance, sufficient case study and genealogical data seem to suggest a strong heritable component.

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4. The word manifestations in the passage is closest in meaning to

(A) observations
(B) symptoms
(C) trials
(D) options
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Paragraph 4
Another study found a correlation between blood type and susceptibility to influenza. This study found more severe clinical manifestations of influenza infections in individuals with blood type A than individuals with blood type O or B. Although a study by Gottfredsson et al seems to suggest that influenza-induced mortality is not influenced by genetic inheritance, sufficient case study and genealogical data seem to suggest a strong heritable component.

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5. The Gottfredsson study is mentioned as an example of a study which

(A) suggests that blood type is related to a person's susceptibility to influenza
(B) proposes that there is a genetic element in the risk of death from influenza
(C) questions a heritable component in influenza-based mortality
(D) refutes the idea that there is a link between genetics and influenza morbidity
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Paragraph 5
Pregnancy is another factor which may increase the risk of influenza complications. Epidemiological data obtained during the 1918 and 1957 influenza pandemics indicated an increased risk of influenza-induced mortality in pregnant women. Additional evidence for increased influenza-related morbidity during pregnancy is found in a study by Neuzil et al wherein influenza infection correlated with increased acute cardiopulmonary hospitalizations in pregnant women. Other studies have found a higher incidence of hospitalization in general among influenza-infected versus non-infected pregnant women and in infected pregnant women over infected members of the general population.

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6. Which of the following has not been found to be true of pregnant women?

(A) Pregnant women are more likely to contract influenza.
(B) Pregnant women are at greater risk of dying of influenza.
(C) Pregnant women with influenza are more likely to be hospitalized.
(D) Pregnant women with influenza are at greater risk of cardiopulmonary complications.
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7. According to the passage, the study by Neuzil et al found

(A) an increased risk of death from influenza in pregnant women
(B) an increased risk of cardiopulmonary hospitalizations in pregnant women with influenza
(C) that pregnant women with influenza were more likely to be hospitalized than non-infected women
(D) that pregnant women with influenza were more likely to be hospitalized than non-pregnant people with influenza

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Paragraph 6
Individuals with preexisting medical conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are also moreprone tohospitalization due to complications stemming from influenza than infected individuals without underlying medical conditions. Research shows that children with asthma and other chronic medical conditions are atenhancedrisk for cardiopulmonary hospitalizations, outpatient visits and antibiotic treatment courses because of influenza infections. Moreover, examination of pediatric patients infected with the novel H1N1 influenza virus found a greater incidence of hospitalization and mortality among children with asthma. Influenza virus infections have also been associated with longer hospitalizations and impaired lung function in patients with COPD. Individuals with asthma and COPD are therefore encouraged to receive influenza virus immunizations to prevent the increased morbidity associated with infection. However, studies examining the role of influenza and vaccination directly on asthma and COPD exacerbations have conflicting results.

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8. The phrase prone to in the passage is closest in meaning to
(A) dependent on
(B) liable to
(C) experienced in
(D) intimidated by
_______________________________
9. The word enhanced in the passage is closest in meaning to
(A) greater
(B) appropriate
(C) limited
(D) calculated
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Paragraph 7

The effect of stress on susceptibility to influenza has been examined using several different types of stressors, primarily using experimental studies in mice. The only epidemiologic study to examine the relationship between stress and influenza looked at stress related to family functioning. The authors found significant increases in the risk of acquiring influenza B among dysfunctional families, specifically those that were perceived as rigid, chaotic, or enmeshed as compared with balanced families.

10. The author mentions mice in paragraph 7 because
(A) their functioning is similar to that of humans
(B) many of the findings from research on mice hold true for humans as well
(C) most of the studies on the link between stress and susceptibility to influenza were done on mice
(D) mice are subject to many different types of stressors
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Paragraph 8

Despite significant advances in the identification of these and other host susceptibility factors for influenza, there remain significant defects in the verification of these factors in humans. Innate differences between human and animal models of influenza present difficulties in determining whether candidate susceptibility factors in animals will carry over to humans and the invasive experiments that are performed in animals cannot be practically or safely applied to humans. More extensive research involving human-based studies will be necessary to augment the current state of knowledge in the field and allow for the identification (or validation) of specific environmental and genetic risk factors associated with influenza-induced disease.

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11. According to the last paragraph, more extensive research will be necessary
(A) In the inherent differences between human and animal models of influenza
(B) To determine which of the experiments carried out on animals can be safely applied to humans
(C) Since it still has to be substantiated that these factors hold true for humans
(D) In order to identify additional environmental and genetic risk factors
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12. Look at the four squares * that indicate where the following sentence can be added to the passage.

Outbreaks of highly pathogenic influenza infections may result in millions of deaths.
Where would the sentence best fit?

  1. (B) * Influenza, a respiratory illness associated with fever, body aches and fatigue, is a disease of significant globalOutbreaks of highly pathogenic influenza infections may result in millions of deaths.Worldwide, the disease causes severe illness in three to five million people and hundreds of thousands of deaths each year. * It is therefore increasingly important to understand the factors that affect susceptibility to influenza so that those at increased risk can be specifically targeted for preventive measures in the early stages of a pandemic. *
    (C) * Influenza, a respiratory illness associated with fever, body aches and fatigue, is a disease of significant global importance. * Worldwide, the disease causes severe illness in three to five million people and hundreds of thousands of deaths each year.Outbreaks of highly pathogenic influenza infections may result in millions of deaths. It is therefore increasingly important to understand the factors that affect susceptibility to influenza so that those at increased risk can be specifically targeted for preventive measures in the early stages of a pandemic. *
    (D) * Influenza, a respiratory illness associated with fever, body aches and fatigue, is a disease of significant global importance. * Worldwide, the disease causes severe illness in three to five million people and hundreds of thousands of deaths each year. * It is therefore increasingly important to understand the factors that affect susceptibility to influenza so that those at increased risk can be specifically targeted for preventive measures in the early stages of a pandemic.Outbreaks of highly pathogenic influenza infections may result in millions of deaths.
    ______________________________

Paragraph 8

Despite significant advances in the identification of these and other host susceptibility factors for influenza, there remain significant defects in the verification of these factors in humans. Innate differences between human and animal models of influenza present difficulties in determining whether candidate susceptibility factors in animals will carry over to humans and the invasive experiments that are performed in animals cannot be practically or safely applied to humans. More extensive research involving human-based studies will be necessary to augment the current state of knowledge in the field and allow for the identification (or validation) of specific environmental and genetic risk factors associated with influenza-induced disease.

  1. ______________________________

13.It can be inferred from the last passage that the findings
(A) are the result of significant advances in scientific methodology
(B) have serious defects
(C) have already been verified as holding true for both humans and animals
(D) are primarily the result of experiments conducted on animals

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14. Directions: Complete the table below by matching five of the answer choices into the appropriate column.

Genetic Characteristics Non-Genetic factors
* *
* *
*

Answer Choices

(A) Studies have found that relatives of people with influenza are at greater risk of dying from the disease than non-relatives.
(B) Understanding the factors that affect susceptibility to influenza can help target people at high risk for preventive measures in the early stages of a pandemic.
(C) People with blood type A are more likely to develop severe symptoms of influenza than people with blood type B or O.
(D) Pregnant women are at greater risk of suffering from complications of influenza.
(E) It is hard to plan an effective vaccination program against influenza since the virus has a high mutation rate.
(F) Stress has been shown to make a person more susceptible to contracting certain strains of influenza.
(G) Families in which conflict and misbehavior occur continually and regularly are at greater risk of acquiring influenza when compared to functional families.

Answer Key:

1.B

2.C

3. A

4. B

5. C

6. A

7. B

8. B

9. A

10. D

11. C

12. C

13. D

14. A, C

D, F, G

פרק ניסוח מחדש במבחן אמיר
2017-06-26T11:53:40+00:00
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