קטע לתרגול הבנת הנקרא ב-TOEFL

//קטע לתרגול הבנת הנקרא ב-TOEFL

 

אחד האתגרים במבחן TOEFL הוא פרק הבנת הנקרא. בפרק זה ישנם 3 או 4 קטעים, כאשר על כל קטע ישנן 12-14 שאלות שיש לפתור ב-20 דקות. שפת הקטעים היא אקדמית, והם לקוחים בעיקר מתחומים מגוונים כגון ביולוגיה, גיאוגרפיה, פסיכולוגיה, רפואה ועוד. כדי למקסם את הציון בפרק הבנת הנקרא, כדאי ללמוד אוצר מילים אקדמי בתחומים שונים, להכיר טכניקות יעילות לפתרון שאלות הבנת הנקרא בTOEFL-, מה שניתן ללמוד בעיקר בקורס ,TOEFL ולתרגל מספר קטעים המדמים את הקטעים במבחן. על מנת לאבחן את רמת הבנת הנקרא במבחן, כתבנו עבורכם קטע המדמה את הטקסטים והשאלות בטופל:

קטע הבנת הנקרא ברמת TOEFL לתרגול ואבחון

sample TOEFL Reading Passage

(שאלות ותשובות לאחר הקטע)

Directions: read the following passage and answer the questions. You should take 20 minutes to complete the 14 questions.

Influenza

Influenza, a respiratory illness associated with fever, body aches and fatigue, is a disease of significant global importance. The influenza virus has a high mutation rate which enables it to escape from preexisting immunity and targeted vaccine strategies. Worldwide, the disease causes severe illness in three to five million people and hundreds of thousands of deaths each year. It is therefore increasingly important to understand the factors that affect susceptibility to influenza so that those at increased risk can be specifically targeted for preventive measures in the early stages of a pandemic.

Susceptibility to and severity of influenza are not equal among all persons and are mediated by an array of host characteristics and environmental exposures. Although mouse models clearly demonstrate a role for genetics and several environmental factors in susceptibility to influenza, the results of human-based studies involving influenza virus infection have been less clear and are somewhat controversial.

Several epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that influenza-induced disease has a significant genetic component. In-depth analysis of genealogical data for victims of the 1918 influenza pandemic found that the relative risk (RR) of death for relatives of infected individuals was significantly higher than the RR of unrelated individuals. The study revealed that the RR for first-degree relatives and spouses was 1.54 and 1.98 respectively, and second- and third-degree relatives were also significantly at risk for influenza-associated death. Recent avian H5N1 influenza virus outbreaks revealed epidemiological clustering of infected individuals: over 90% of case clusters occurred among blood-related family members.

Another studyfound a correlation between blood type and susceptibility to influenza. This study found more severe clinical manifestations of influenza infections in individuals with blood type A than individuals with blood type O or B. Although a study by Gottfredsson et al seems to suggest that influenza-induced mortality is not influenced by genetic inheritance, sufficient case study and genealogical data seem to suggest a strong heritable component.

Pregnancy isanother factor which may increase the risk of influenza complications. Epidemiological data obtained during the 1918 and 1957 influenza pandemics indicated an increased risk of influenza-induced mortality in pregnant women. Additional evidence for increased influenza-related morbidity during pregnancy is found in a study by Neuzil et al wherein influenza infection correlated with increased acute cardiopulmonary hospitalizations in pregnant women. Other studies have found a higher incidence of hospitalization in general among influenza-infected versus non-infected pregnant women and in infected pregnant women over infected members of the general population.

Individuals with preexisting medical conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are also more prone to hospitalization due to complications stemming from influenza than infected individuals without underlying medical conditions. Research shows that children with asthma and other chronic medical conditions are at enhanced risk for cardiopulmonary hospitalizations, outpatient visits and antibiotic treatment courses because of influenza infections. Moreover, examination of pediatric patients infected with the novel H1N1 influenza virus found a greater incidence of hospitalization and mortality among children with asthma. Influenza virus infections have also been associated with longer hospitalizations and impaired lung function in patients with COPD. Individuals with asthma and COPD are therefore encouraged to receive influenza virus immunizations to prevent the increased morbidity associated with infection. However, studies examining the role of influenza and vaccination directly on asthma and COPD exacerbations have conflicting results.

The effect of stress on susceptibility to influenza has been examined using several different types of stressors, primarily using experimental studies in mice. The only epidemiologic study to examine the relationship between stress and influenza looked at stress related to family functioning. The authors found significant increases in the risk of acquiring influenza B among dysfunctional families, specifically those that were perceived as rigid, chaotic, or enmeshed as compared with balanced families.

Despite significant advances in the identification of these and other host susceptibility factors for influenza, there remain significant defects in the verification of these factors in humans. Innate differences between human and animal models of influenza present difficulties in determining whether candidate susceptibility factors in animals will carry over to humans and the invasive experiments that are performed in animals cannot be practically or safely applied to humans. More extensive research involving human-based studies will be necessary to augment the current state of knowledge in the field and allow for the identification (or validation) of specific environmental and genetic risk factors associated with influenza-induced disease.

Questions:

(check answers at the bottom after completing all the questions)

Paragraph 1
Influenza, a respiratory illness associated with fever, body aches and fatigue, is a disease of significant global importance. The influenza virus has a high mutation rate which enables it to escape from preexisting immunity and targeted vaccine strategies. Worldwide, the disease causes severe illness in three to five million people and hundreds of thousands of deaths each year. It is therefore increasingly important to understand the factors that affect susceptibility to influenza so that those at increased risk can be specifically targeted for preventive measures in the early stages of a pandemic.

  1. According to the passage, knowledge of the factors which increase a person's chances of contracting influenza –
    (A) would enable us to develop better vaccine strategies
    (B) would allow us to administer preventive measures to high-risk people in the early stages of an outbreak
    (C) would lead to a greater understanding of how exactly the influenza virus is spread worldwide
    (D) would help eliminate the disease in the early stages of a pandemic

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2017-11-13T17:17:22+00:00